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TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

日期: 2019-08-05
瀏覽次數: 229

Critical thinking is a 21st-century essential

批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的



If we want children to thrive in our complicated world, we need to teach them how to think, says educator Brian Oshiro.


教育家Brian Oshiro說,如果我們希望孩子們在復雜的世界中茁壯成長,我們需要教他們如何思考。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


We all want the young people in our lives to thrive, but there’s no clear consensus about what will best put them on the path to future success. Should every child be taught to code? Attain fluency in Mandarin, Spanish, Hindi and English?


我們都希望我們生活中的年輕人能夠茁壯成長,但是對于什么能最好地讓他們走向未來成功之路并沒有明確的共識。每個孩子都應該接受編碼嗎?流利的普通話,西班牙語,印地語和英語?


All the facts explain a truth :Critical thinking is a 21st-century essential

所有的事實都說明了一個道理:批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


How important is critical thinking?

批判性思維有多重要?



If we want our children to have flexible minds that can readily absorb new information and respond to complex problems, he says, we need to develop their critical thinking skills,says educator and teacher trainer Brian Oshiro.


教育家Brian Oshiro說,如果我們希望我們的孩子擁有靈活的思維能夠輕松吸收新信息并應對復雜問題,那么我們就需要培養他們的批判性思維能力。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


In adult life, “we all have to deal with questions that are a lot more complicated than those found on a multiple-choice test,” he says in a TED talk.?


他在TED的演講中說道,在成人生活中,我們必須處理一些比起考試中的多項選擇題中復雜得多的問題。


“We need to give students an opportunity to grapple with questions that don’t necessarily have one correct answer. This is more realistic of the types of situations that they’re likely to face when they get outside the classroom.”


這個時候,我們需要讓學生學會去解決那些不一定有正確答案的問題,這對幫助他們走出校園時解決各種情況更有幫助。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


How can we encourage kids to think critically from an early age?

我們怎樣才能鼓勵孩子從小就開始批判性思考??


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


1.? Go beyond “What?”

and ask “How?” and “Why?”

不僅僅要知道“What?”,更要學會多問 “How?”和“Why?”


Let’s say your child is learning about climate change in school. Their teacher may ask them a question like “What are the main causes of climate change?”


Oshiro says there are two problems with this question — it can be answered with a quick web search, and being able to answer it gives people a false sense of security; it makes them feel like they know a topic, but their knowledge is superficial.

假設您的孩子正在學習學校的氣候變化,老師問了一個類似于“氣候變化的主要原因是什么?”的問題。


但這個問題存在兩個問題:第一個是他們可以通過快速的網絡搜索來回答,這樣簡單直接的方式會讓他們進入到思考的舒適圈;第二則是,如果只回答這樣一個問題,他們就只能獲得淺層次的思考,無法站在一個話題的層面進行更深度的思考。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


The solution is this,at home, prompt your kid to answer questions such as “How exactly does X cause climate change?” and “Why should we worry about it?” To answer, they’ll need to go beyond the bare facts and really think about a subject.


解決方案是這樣的,在家里,你可以引導你的孩子回答諸如“ XXX是如何導致氣候變化呢?”和“ 我們為什么要擔心氣候變化?”之類的問題。這樣提問的目的是,他們需要超越事實并站在一個整體的角度思考整個話題,比如思考“氣候變化”這個話題而不是單一的了解“引起氣候變化的原因是什么”這個問題。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


Another option is Localizing questions . Other great questions: “How will climate change affect where we live?” or “Why should our town in particular worry about climate change?” Localizing questions gives kids, says Oshiro, “an opportunity to connect whatever knowledge they have to something personal in their lives.”


另一個方法是本地化問題。我們可以把上面提到的問題改為:“ 氣候變化將如何影響我們居住的地方?”或“ 為什么我們的城鎮特別擔心氣候變化?”


把問題本地化會讓孩子們更有切身感。Oshiro說,“這是讓他們將自己所掌握的知識與生活聯系起來的好機會。”



2. Follow it up with?

“How do you know this?”

跟進“你怎么知道這個?”


TOOT Science insisted on defending every child's thinking power when designing T-BOOK. T-BOOK advocates guiding children to defend their choices.


托特科學在設計T-BOOK時就堅持捍衛每一位孩子思考的權力,T-BOOK主張引導孩子為自己的選擇辯護。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

T-BOOK 設計者:Monica


Oshiro says, “They have to provide some sort of evidence and be able to defend their answer against some logical attack.” Answering this question requires kids to reflect on their previous statements and assess where they’re getting their information from.

回答“How do you know this?”這個問題需要孩子們反思他們他們的答案,并說出他們是從哪里獲取信息的。


Oshiro說,“他們應該學會通過提供某種證據來捍衛自己的答案,給別人的反駁和懷疑一個具有邏輯性的回答。”



3.Prompt them to think about?

how their perspective?

may differ from other people’s.

引導他們去思考自己的觀點與其他人的觀點有何不同。


A question likes “How will climate change affect people living in X country or X city?” or “Why should people living in X country or X city worry about it?”?


Kids will be pushed to think about the priorities and concerns of others, says Oshiro, and to try to understand their perspectives — essential elements of creative problem-solving.


類似于“氣候變化將如何影響生活在X國或X市的人們?”或“為什么生活在X國或X市的人們擔心呢?”這樣的問題會引導孩子進一步思考。


Oshiro說,這樣的問題會使孩子們去思考別人回答的優點和重點,并試圖去了解其他人的觀點,這是創造性解決問題的基本要素。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的
TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的
TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的
TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的
TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的
TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

托特卡牌&成就系統? 系統設計者:Chen 卡牌設計師:Judith



In the classroom of TOOT Science, we are also creating such opportunities for children. In our card achievement system, we set up skills cards that connect life, summary, express communication, cooperation, and sharing.


在托特科學的課堂上,我們也在為孩子創造這樣的機會。在我們的卡牌成就系統中,我們設置了聯系生活、總結、表達交流、合作、分享等技能卡牌。


We hope that every child in the classroom learns not only a scientific knowledge, but also an experimental method or an observation method. We hope that they can form a system of thinking skills, and such thinking ability is obviously not a simple thinking problem. The answer can be formed.


我們希望在課堂上每一個孩子學會的不僅僅是一個科學知識、或者一種實驗方式或者觀察方式,我們希望他們能夠形成一套系統思考的能力,而這樣的思考能力很明顯不是單純的思考問題、給出回答就可以形成的。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX



4.Finally, ask them?

how to solve this problem.

最后,問他們如何解決這個問題。


For example, rather than ask “How can we solve climate change?” — which is too big for anyone to wrap their mind around — ask “How could we address and solve cause X of climate change?”


Answering this question will require kids to synthesize their knowledge. Nudge them to come up with a variety of approaches: What scientific solution could address cause X? What’s a financial solution? Political solution?


例如,不要問“我們如何解決氣候變化?” 因為這對于任何人來說都太大了。你可以問“我們怎樣才能找到氣候變化的原因并解決它?”


回答這個問題需要孩子們對他們的知識進行綜合性地梳理。推動他們進行思考并提出各種方法,例如“什么科學解決方案可以解決導致X?財務解決方案是什么?政治解決方案是什么?”


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


You can start this project any time on any topic; you don’t have to be an expert on what your kids are studying. This is about teaching them to think for themselves. Your role is to direct their questions, listen and respond. Meanwhile, your kids “have to think about how they’re going to put this into digestible pieces for you to understand it,” says Oshiro. “It’s a great way to consolidate learning.”


Oshiro說,你可以在任何問題上采用這樣的教育方式,你不必成為某一方面的專家,但你需要教他們自己進行系統的思考。要知道,你的角色是指導他們的問題,傾聽和回應。與此同時,你的孩子必須考慮如何將自己的想法變的能讓你理解,這個過程是固學習的好方法。


TOOT看點 | 批判性思維是21世紀必不可少的

作者:Leonardoworx LWX


Critical thinking isn’t just for the young, of course. He says, “If you’re a lifelong learner, ask yourself these types of questions in order to test your assumptions about what you think you already know.” As he adds, “We can all improve and support critical thinking by asking a few extra questions each day.”

當然,批判性思維不僅適用于年輕人。如果你是一個終身學習者,不妨問問自己這些問題,以便測試你對你認為自己已經知道的事情的理解程度。


正如Oshiro補充說的那樣,我們應該每天都有額外的問題讓我們通過詢問自己來獲得批判性思維。



Half past 2019,?

Have you understood the critical thinking?

2019過去一半了,

批判性思維你搞懂了嗎?




資料來源:

《Critical thinking is a 21st-century essential》

Mary Halton

https://ideas.ted.com

圖片來源:behance

原創作品版權歸TOOTSCIENCE所有



 
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